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Nationalist convervative groups dominated the general synods. The traditional affinity to the former princely holders of the summepiscopacy often continued.
So when in the leftist parties successfully launched a plebiscite to the effect of the expropriation of the German former regnal houses without compensation, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union called up for an abstention from the election, holding up the commandment Thou shalt not steal.
A problem was the spiritual vacuum, which emerged after the church stopped being a state church. Otto Dibelius , since general superintendent of Kurmark within the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , published his book Das Jahrhundert der Kirche The century of the Church  , in which he declared the 20th century to be the era when the Evangelical Church may for the first time develop freely and gain the independence God would have wished for, without the burden and constraints of the state church function.
In this respect Dibelius regarded himself as consciously anti-Jewish, explaining in a circular to the pastors in his general superintendency district of Kurmark , "that with all degenerating phenomena of modern civilisation Judaism plays a leading role".
While this new self-conception helped the activists within the church, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union could not increase the number of its activists.
In Berlin the number of activists made up maybe 60, to 80, persons of an overall number of parishioners of more than 3 millions within an overall of more than 4 million Berliners.
In the early and mids the annual number of secessions amounted to about 80, In the field of church elections committed congregants formed new Kirchenparteien , which nominated candidates for the elections of the presbyteries and synods of different level.
In Christian socialists founded the Covenant of Religious Socialists. Glaubensbewegung Deutsche Christen , DC , participating on 12—14 November for the first time in the elections for presbyters and synodals within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union and gaining about a third of the seats in presbyteries and synods.
In the inter-war years the general synod convened five times. After the system of state churches had disappeared with the monarchies in the German states, the question arose, why the Protestant church bodies within Germany did not merge.
Besides the smaller Protestant denominations of the Mennonites, Baptists or Methodists, which were organised crossing state borders along denominational lines, there were 29 later 28 church bodies organised along territorial borders of German states or Prussian provinces.
In fact, a merger was permanently under discussion, but never materialised due to strong regional self-confidence and traditions as well as the denominational fragmentation into Lutheran, Calvinist and United and uniting churches.
Following the Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches of , the then 29 territorially defined German Protestant church bodies founded the Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund German Federation of Protestant Churches in , which was no new merged church, but a loose confederacy of the existing independent church bodies.
Most clerics, representatives and parishioners welcomed the Nazi takeover. Most Protestants suggested that the mass arrests, following the abolition of central civic rights by Paul von Hindenburg on 28 February , hit the right persons.
On 20 March Dachau concentration camp , the first official premise of its kind, was opened, while , hastily arrested inmates were held in hundreds of spontaneous so-called wild concentration camps, to be gradually evacuated into about new official camps to be opened until the end of On 21 March the newly elected Reichstag convened in the Evangelical Garrison Church of Potsdam , an event commemorated as the Day of Potsdam , and the locally competent Gen.
Even after this clearly anti-Semitic action he repeated in his circular to the pastors of Kurmark on the occasion of Easter 16 April his anti-Jewish attitude, giving the same words as in On 4 and 5 April representatives of the German Christians convened in Berlin and demanded the dismissal of all members of the executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany.
Reichsbischof , abolishing all democratic participation of parishioners in presbyteries and synods. Furthermore, the German Christians demanded to purify Protestantism of all Jewish patrimony.
Judaism should no longer be regarded a religion, which can be adopted and given up, but a racial category which were genetic. Thus German Christians opposed proselytising among Jews.
Protestantism should become a pagan kind heroic pseudo-Nordic religion. Of course the Old Testament , which includes the Ten Commandments and the virtue of charity taken from the Torah , Book of Leviticus I am the LORD.
In a mood of an emergency through an impending Nazi takeover functionaries of the then officiating executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies stole a march on the German Christians.
This caused the later confusion when the streamlined Reich church and the Confessing Church alike identified as being the legitimate church of that name.
The plans were to dissolve the German Evangelical Church Confederation and the 28 church bodies and to replace them by a uniform Protestant church, to be called the German Evangelical Church German: Thus the Nazis, who were permanently breaking the law, stepped in, using the streamlined Prussian government, and declared the functionaries had exceeded their authority.
This act clearly violated the status of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union as statutory body German: Kapler resigned as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , after he had applied for retirement on 3 June, and Gen.
Then the German Christian Dr. Many pastors protested that and held instead services of penance bearing the violation of the church constitution in mind.
On 11 July German-Christian and intimidated non-such representatives of all the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany declared the German Evangelical Church Confederation to be dissolved and the German Evangelical Church to be founded.
On 14 July Hesse, Kapler and Marahrens presented the newly developed constitution of the German Evangelical Church , which the Nazi government declared to be valid.
The new synods of the 28 Protestant churches were to declare their dissolution as separate church bodies. He established a Spiritual Ministerium German: Landesbischof , a title and function non-existing in the constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , and claimed hierarchical supremacy over all clerics and other employees as is usual for Catholic bishops.
The Gestapo confiscated the office and the printing-press there, in order to hinder any reprint. Thus the turnout in the elections was extraordinarily high, since most non-observant Protestants, who since long aligned with the Nazis, had voted.
Then the German Christian majority of synodals over 37 nays decided to appeal to the general synod to introduce the so-called Aryan paragraph German: Gerhard Jacobi led the opposing provincial synodals.
Other provincial synods demanded the Aryan paragraph too. Therefore unequal rights, due to national or racial arguments, are inacceptable as well as any segregation.
The German Christians abused the general synod as a mere acclamation, like a Nazi party convention. Koch and his partisans left the synod. Provinzialbischof replacing the prior general superintendents.
By enabling the dismissal of all Protestants of Jewish descent from jobs with the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , the official church bodies accepted the Nazi racist doctrine of anti-Semitism.
This breach with Christian principles within the range of the church was unacceptable to many church members. Directly within the church and in the state by means of the secular government many church members could not see any basis, how a Protestant church body could interfere with the anti-Semitism performed in the state sphere, since in its self-conception the church body was a religious, not a political organisation.
Among them were Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer , who demanded the church bodies to oppose the abolition of democracy and the unlawfulness in the general political sphere.
In reaction to the anti-Semitic discriminations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union the church-aligned Breslauer Christliches Wochenblatt Breslau Christian Weekly published the following criticism in the October edition of Then Christ descends from the Crucifix of the altar and leaves the church.
On 11 September Gerhard Jacobi gathered c. In the Covenant counted 7, members, after the number sank to 4,, among them retired pastors, auxiliary preachers and candidates.
On 18 September Werner was appointed praeses of the old-Prussian general synod, thus becoming president of the church senate.
Thus the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , which included Berlin, had two bishops. Only such synodals were admitted, who would "uncompromisingly stand up any time for the National Socialist state" German: Furthermore, the national synod usurped the power in the 28 Protestant church bodies and provided the new so-called bishops of the 28 Protestant church bodies with hierarchical supremacy over all clergy and laymen within their church organisation.
The national synod abolished future election for the synods of the 28 Protestant church bodies. Henceforth synodals had to replace two thirds of the outgoing synodals by co-optation, the remaining third was to be appointed by the respective bishop.
The general synod German: The synods of 25 other Protestant church bodies decided the same until the end of This made also the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover one of the few Protestant churches in Germany using the title of bishop already since the s, thus prior to the Nazi era , with State Bishop August Marahrens , change its mind.
Reinhold Krause, then president of the Greater Berlin section of the German Christians , held a speech, defaming the Old Testament for its alleged "Jewish morality of rewards" German: A wave of protest flooded over the German Christians , which ultimately initiated the decline of that movement.
On 25 November the complete Bavarian section of the German Christians declared its secession. Many presbyters of German Christian alignment retired, tired from disputing.
The verdict would have major consequences for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. In a series of provincial synods the opposition assumed shape.
Martin Albertz, elected its first provincial brethren council , comprising Supt. The Gestapo shut down one office of the provincial brethren council after the other.
The Gestapo summoned her more than 40 times and tried to intimidate her, confronting her with the fact that she, being partly of Jewish descent, would have to realise the worst possible treatment in jail.
Some functionaries and laymen in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union opposed the unification of the 28 Protestant church bodies, but many more agreed, but they wanted it under the preservation of the true Protestant faith, not imposed by Nazi partisans.
In reaction to the convention and claims of the German Christians non-Nazi Protestants met in Barmen from 29 to 31 May On 29 May those coming from congregations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union held a separate meeting, their later on so-called first old-Prussian Synod of Confession German: The participants declared this basis to be binding for any Protestant Church deserving that name and confessed their allegiance to this basis see Barmen Theological Declaration.
Henceforth the movement of all Protestant denominations, opposing Nazi adulteration of Protestantism and Nazi intrusion into Protestant church affairs, was called the Confessing Church German: Presbyteries with German Christian majorities often banned Confessing Christians from using church property and even entering the church buildings.
Many church employees, who opposed, were dismissed. While the German Christians , holding the majority in most official church bodies, lost many supporters, the Confessing Christians , comprising many authentical persuasive activists, still remained a minority but increased their number.
As compared to the vast majority of indifferent, non-observing Protestants, both movements were marginal. One pre tradition of non-ecclesiastical influence within church structures had made it into the new constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union of Many of the churches, which had been founded before the 19th century, had a patron holding the ius patronatus , meaning that either the owner of a manor estate in the countryside or a political municipality or city was in charge of maintaining the church buildings and paying the pastor.
No pastor could be appointed without the consent of the patron advowson. This became a curse and a blessing during the Nazi period.
While all political entities were Nazi-streamlined they abused the patronage to appoint Nazi-submissive pastors on the occasion of a vacancy.
Also estate owners sometimes sided with the Nazis. But more estate owners were conservative and thus rather backed the opposition in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.
So the congregations under their patronage could often keep or appoint anew a pastor of the intra-church opposition. On 9 August the Second National Synod , with all synodals again admitted by the Spiritual Ministerium , severed the uniformation of the formerly independent Protestant church bodies, disenfranchising their respective synods to decide in internal church matters.
These pretensions increased the criticism among church members within the streamlined church bodies. A breakthrough was the verdict of 20 November But the prior dismissals of opponents and impositions of loyal German Christians in many church functions were not reversed.
Werner regained his authority as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. These activities completely depended on donations. In the Gestapo closed the seminaries in the east.
Iwand, on whom in the Gestapo had inflicted the nationwide prohibition to speak in the public, reopened a seminary in Dortmund in January This earned him an imprisonment of four month in the same year.
Among their examiners were originally professors of the Frederick William University of Berlin , who refrained from examining after their employer, the Nazi government, threatened to dismiss them in The Gestapo forbade the opening ceremony in Dahlem, thus Supt.
Albertz spontaneously celebrated it in St. On 4 December, the Gestapo closed the KiHo altogether, thus the teaching and learning continued underground at changing locations.
Among the teachers were Supt. The synodals elected by all confessing congregations and the congregations of the intact churches decided to found an independent German Evangelical Church.
Since the confessing congregations would have to contravene the laws as interpreted by the official church bodies, the synod developed an emergency law of its own.
Bruderrat as provisional presbytery, and a Confessing congregation assembly German: The Confessing congregations of each deanery formed a Confessing deanery synod German: Kreis-Bekenntnissynode , electing a deanery brethren council German: If the superintendent of a deanery clung to the Confessing Church , he was accepted, otherwise a deanery pastor German: Kreispfarrer was elected from the midst of the Confessing pastors in the deanery.
Confessing congregants elected synodals for a Confessing provincial synod as well as Confessing State synod German: Landes-Bekenntnissynode , who again elected a provincial brethren council or the state brethren council of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union colloquially old-Prussian brethren council , and a council of the Confessing ecclesiastical province German: Rat der Bekennenden Kirche of the respective ecclesiastical province or the council of the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union , the respective administrative bodies.
Any obedience to the official bodies of the destroyed church of the old-Prussian Union was to be rejected. In Berlin Confessing Christians celebrated the constitution of their church on the occasion of the Reformation Day 31 October The Gestapo forbade them any public event, thus the festivities had to take place in closed rooms with bidden guests only.
All the participants had to carry a so-called red card , identifying them as proponents of the Confessing Church.
On 7 December the Gestapo forbade the Confessing Church to rent any location, in order to prevent future events like that.
The Nazi government then forbade any mentioning of the Kirchenkampf in which media whatsoever. Hitler was informed about the proceedings in Dahlem and invited the leaders of the three Lutheran intact churches , Marahrens, Meiser and Wurm.
Dahlemiten , and the more moderate Lutheran intact churches and many opposing functionaries and clergy in the destroyed churches , which had not yet been dismissed.
Between end of and March the central office of the Preliminary Church Executive was located in the Burckhardt-Haus of the school for social workers German: The synodals decided that the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union should unite with the destroyed official Church of the old-Prussian Union.
The synodals further adopted a declaration about the Nazi racist doctrine. The same month the declaration was read in all confessing congregations, that the Nazi racist doctrine, claiming there were a Jewish and an Aryan race, was pure mysticism.
In reaction to that the Nazi government arrested pastors, who had read this declaration from their pulpits. From then on every Tuesday the brethren councils issued updated lists with the names of the imprisoned.
Since the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany levied contributions from their parishioners by a surcharge on the income tax , collected and then transferred by the state tax offices, the official church bodies denied the confessing congregations their share in the contributions.
Each congregation had its own budget and the official church authorities transferred the respective share in the revenues to the legitimate presbytery of each congregations, be it governed by German Christians or Confessing Christians.
All budgets and remittances were to be confirmed by state comptrollers. On 11 April an ordinance ordered that salaries were only to be remitted to orderly appointed employees and all future appointments of whomsoever, would only take effect with the consent of the financial departments.
He turned out to ignore the rules and to largely use his scope of discretion. Thus Confessing congregations outside of Berlin built up a new network of escrow accounts.
Confessing Christians of laity and Covenant pastors, still undisputedly receiving a full salary from the official church, agreed to substantial contributions to maintain the Confessing Church.
But the synodals did not adopt a declaration, prepared by Supt. Albertz, condemning the Nuremberg Laws. Wurm was elected speaker of the Confessing Church.
Since the orderly courts often approved litigations against German Christian measurements, because they usually lacked any legal basis, on 26 June the Nazi government passed a law, which would ban all suits about church questions from being decided by orderly jurisdiction.
Thus the Nazi government cut off the Confessing Church from appealing to courts. Orderly courts could not overrule its decisions. In fact the Decision-Taking Office only acted up after the compromises failed in In the following years of compromising Hermann Ehlers became a legal advisor of the old-Prussian brethren council , until he was arrested from June to July , which made him quit his collaboration.
Therefore, he dropped the extreme German Christians and tried to win moderate Confessing Christians and respected neutrals.
On 24 September , a new law empowered Kerrl to legislate by way of ordinances within the Protestant church bodies, circumventing any synodal autonomy.
On 10 September the old-Prussian brethren council convened preparing the upcoming third old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Steglitz Synod.
Albertz urged the brethren council to discuss the terrible situation of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, as it turned by the Nuremberg Laws and all the other anti-Semitic discriminations.
This was completely denied by the German Christians since , reserving Christianity as a religion exclusively for Gentiles, but also some Confessing Christians refused the baptism of Jews.
Reichskirchenausschuss , RKA on 3 October , combining neutral, moderate Confessing Christians and moderate German Christians to reconcile the disputing church parties.
In the course of November state ecclesiastical committees and provincial ecclesiastical committees were to be formed.
Kerrl appointed a state ecclesiastical committee German: Wilhelm Ewald Schmidt Oberhausen und Supt. In November Kerrl decreed the parallel institutions of the Confessing Church to be dissolved, which was protested and ignored by the brethren councils.
On 19 December Kerrl issued a decree which forbade all kinds of Confessing Church activities, namely appointments of pastors, education, examinations, ordinations, ecclesiastical visitations, announcements and declarations from the pulpit, separate financial structures and convening Synods of Confession; further the decree established provincial ecclesiastical committees.
The Confessing Church in the Rhenish and Westphalian ecclesiastical provinces blocked in fact the formation of provincial ecclesiastical committees until 14 February The March of Brandenburg provincial ecclesiastical committee est.
On 6 January, the members elected Zimmermann their president. This was the case in the deanery of Berlin-Spandau. As a gesture of reconciliation the state ecclesiastical committee for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union legitimised all ordinations and examinations of the Confessing Church retroactively for the time from 1 January to 30 November Nevertheless, the Confessing Church refused to accept the new examination office of the state ecclesiastical committee.
Thus Kerrl successfully wedged the Confessing Church. On 4 December the March of Brandenburg provincial Synod of Confession agreed to split in two provincial subsections, one for Greater Berlin and one comprising the political Province of Brandenburg with two provincial brethren councils, led by Gerhard Jacobi Berlin, resigned in , but quarrels between the moderate and the Dahlemites continued and by Scharf Brandenburg , who followed the Dahlemite guidelines.
The first Preliminary Church Executive resigned, since its members, representing intact churches , wanted to co-operate with the committees, while its members from destroyed churches , especially the Dahlemites did not.
Also the different provincial brethren councils within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union were dissented.
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