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Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad Auslandsdeutsche.

After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background.

Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.

Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages , and the extinct East Germanic languages , to an even lesser extent.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.

Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter. German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.

Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.

Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.

With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation. For the country from to , see West Germany.

Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire.

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Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem. There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other.

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Archived from the original on 11 October New York University Press. A Concise History of Germany. Historical Dictionary of Austria. Volume 70 2nd ed.

Archived from the original on 16 May The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. In Bowman, Alan K. The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.

Volume 10 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 23 December The crisis of empire, A. The Cambridge Ancient History. The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples.

Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. The Great Famine — and the Black Death — Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 19 March The printing press as an agent of change.

Cambridge University Press, pp. The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. A History of Eastern Europe: Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 26 March The Guardian News and Media Limited.

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Archived from the original PDF on 20 May Retrieved 14 June After signature by all 27 Heads of State and governments, the Treaty will travel back to Brussels, where it will be officially sealed with the seals of the 27 Member States, on the 18th of December.

Then, it will be sent to Rome, the Italian government being the depository of the Treaties. Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 7 May Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

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Zoos and Aquariums of America. Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 16 April Archived PDF from the original on 12 July Retrieved 11 April Archived PDF from the original on 19 June Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 24 January The World Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 13 March Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on 13 December Archived from the original on 1 May Criminal Justice in Germany.

Archived from the original on 22 September Journal of Legal Studies. Archived from the original on 18 October Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 6 May Landtag state assembly of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 17 July Quartal " XLS in German. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 6 July German Federal Foreign Office.

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Archived from the original PDF on 14 May Archived from the original on 4 April Archived from the original on 27 October Thus, it is likely that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens".

This town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers.

At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg.

The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg , Konradius von Lichtenberg , for help. The bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg.

According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July It was a Pyrrhic victory , since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until In the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid.

Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs , who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom.

Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted.

The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by The silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg.

This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, and in Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In the cities of Freiburg, Basel , Colmar , and Breisach entered into an monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs Rappenpfennig Collective.

This alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,, people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 30 churches and monasteries.

A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences. It was also a commercial center.

The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.

In , the city ratified a set of legal reforms, widely considered the most progressive of the time. The aim was to find a balance between city traditions and old Roman Law.

In , Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine. Erasmus moved here after Basel accepted the Reformation.

A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot where burnings were carried out. The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg.

During this war and other conflicts, the city belonged at various times to the Austrians , the French , the Swedish , the Spanish , and various members of the German Confederacy.

Between and , when the city was not under French occupation it was the administrative headquarters of Further Austria , the Habsburg territories in the southwest of Germany.

In , the city, together with the Breisgau and Ortenau areas, became part of Baden. In , when the Archdiocese of Freiburg was founded, Freiburg became the seat of a Catholic archbishop.

They were deported to Camp Gurs in the south of France, where many died. On 18 July , the remaining Baden and Freiburg Jews were transferred to Auschwitz in Nazi-occupied Poland, where almost all were murdered.

The pavements of Freiburg carry memorials to individual victims, in the form of brass plates outside their former residences. Freiburg was heavily bombed during World War II.

In May , aircraft of the Luftwaffe mistakenly dropped approximately 60 bombs on Freiburg near the railway station, killing 57 people.

After the war, the city was rebuilt on its medieval plan. The French Army maintained a presence in Freiburg until , when the last French Army division left the city, and left Germany.

On the site of the former French Army base, a new neighborhood for 5, people, Vauban , was begun in the late s as a "sustainable model district".

Because of its scenic beauty, relatively warm and sunny climate, and easy access to the Black Forest, Freiburg is a hub for regional tourism.

The longest cable car run in Germany, which is 3. They were never intended to be used for sewage, and even in the Middle Ages such use could lead to harsh penalties.

During the summer, the running water provides natural cooling of the air, and offers a pleasant gurgling sound.

The Augustinerplatz is one of the central squares in the old city. On warm summer nights, hundreds of students gather here. A farmers market is held here every day except Sundays.

Built between and , it was once the center of the financial life of the region. The Platz der alten Synagoge "Old Synagogue Square" is one of the more important squares on the outskirts of the historic old city.

The square was the location of a synagogue until it was destroyed on Kristallnacht in The Siegesdenkmal , or victory monument, is a monument to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War in It is situated at the northern edge of the historic city center of Freiburg, and was built by Karl Friedrich Moest.

In everyday language of people living in Freiburg, it serves as an orientation marker or as a meeting place. To the east of the city centre, the Schlossberg hill provides extensive views over the city and surrounding region.

The castle Schloss from which the hill takes its name was demolished in the s, and only ruins remain.

Schlossberg retained its importance to the city, however, and years ago the city leaders opened up walks and views to make the mountain available to the public.

Today, the Schlossbergbahn funicular railway connects the city centre to the hill. Badische Zeitung is the main local daily paper, covering the Black Forest region.

Marine features are limited however, as a result of its vast distance from oceans and seas. As a result, summers have a significant subtropical influence as the inland air heats up.

July and August are even under normal circumstances akin to a heatwave for most of Germany. Winters are moderate but usually with frequent frosts.

Freiburg is known as an "eco-city". The newly built neighbourhoods of Vauban and Rieselfeld were developed and built according to the idea of sustainability.

The citizens of Freiburg are known in Germany for their love of cycling and recycling. In June , the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of " low-energy buildings " on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications.

Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. Freiburg is a center of academia and research with numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates having lived, worked, and taught there.

The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg , as well as its medical center.

Freiburg belonged to Austria until and because of this stayed Catholic, even though surrounding villages like Haslach, Opfingen, Tiengen, and the surrounding land ruled by the Margrave of Baden turned Protestant as a result of the Reformation.

The city was part of the Diocese of Konstanz until Due to a dispute between the government of Baden and the Holy See , the archbishop officially took office in The borders of the archdiocese correspond with the borders of the former province of Baden and the former Margraviate of Hohenzollern.

The cathedral, in which the Bishop resides, is Freiburg Minster. Also part of the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg are the suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

Until the dioceses of Limburg and Fulda also belonged to this ecclesiastical province. The Archbishop of Freiburg holds the title of metropolitan and the German headquarters of the Caritas International is in Freiburg.

Saint George the flag of Freiburg has the cross of George , Lambert of Maastricht and the catacomb saint, Alexander , are the patron saints of Freiburg.

Many works of art depicting these saints are in the Freiburg Minster, on the Minster square, just as in the museums and archives of the city, including some by Hans Baldung Grien , Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger.

In , with the attack of Breisgau on the Grand Duchy of Baden by a Catholic ruler, many Protestants moved into the city. There are multiple other free protestant churches: The Catholic Church of St.

Jews are said to have lived in the city before , but it was only after that they supposedly founded an official community in the Webergasse a small street within the city center.

The counts of Freiburg bought the lucrative Schutzjude , which means that all personal information on Jews living in Freiburg was directly sent to Konrad II and his co-reigning son Friedrich.

The two issued a comprising letter promising safety and liberty to all local Jews on 12 October It lost all value shortly after, however, on 1 January

1600 deutschland -

Trotzdem setzten die wiederkehrenden Invasionen Chinas Birma in der zweiten Jahrhunderthälfte stark zu. Jahrhundert verlor das Königtum an Macht. Da die Kaiser sich oft auf ihre rituellen Aufgaben beschränkten, wurde das Reich von den Eunuchen des Hofes und den Spitzenbeamten regiert. Derzeit tritt ein Problem beim Filtern der Rezensionen auf. Zitiert nach Mary Fulbrook: Diese wurden mit dem Edikt von Nantes beendet, das den Calvinisten umfangreiche religiöse Rechte einräumte. Chinas wirtschaftlicher Aufschwung ging mit einer Reduzierung der Standesunterschiede einher. Das katholische Frankreich hatte sein Territorium um bedeutende Gebiete im Osten erweitert, während die englische Krone Irland, Schottland und das anglikanische England beherrschte.

In June , the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of " low-energy buildings " on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications.

Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. Freiburg is a center of academia and research with numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates having lived, worked, and taught there.

The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg , as well as its medical center.

Freiburg belonged to Austria until and because of this stayed Catholic, even though surrounding villages like Haslach, Opfingen, Tiengen, and the surrounding land ruled by the Margrave of Baden turned Protestant as a result of the Reformation.

The city was part of the Diocese of Konstanz until Due to a dispute between the government of Baden and the Holy See , the archbishop officially took office in The borders of the archdiocese correspond with the borders of the former province of Baden and the former Margraviate of Hohenzollern.

The cathedral, in which the Bishop resides, is Freiburg Minster. Also part of the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg are the suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

Until the dioceses of Limburg and Fulda also belonged to this ecclesiastical province. The Archbishop of Freiburg holds the title of metropolitan and the German headquarters of the Caritas International is in Freiburg.

Saint George the flag of Freiburg has the cross of George , Lambert of Maastricht and the catacomb saint, Alexander , are the patron saints of Freiburg.

Many works of art depicting these saints are in the Freiburg Minster, on the Minster square, just as in the museums and archives of the city, including some by Hans Baldung Grien , Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger.

In , with the attack of Breisgau on the Grand Duchy of Baden by a Catholic ruler, many Protestants moved into the city.

There are multiple other free protestant churches: The Catholic Church of St. Jews are said to have lived in the city before , but it was only after that they supposedly founded an official community in the Webergasse a small street within the city center.

The counts of Freiburg bought the lucrative Schutzjude , which means that all personal information on Jews living in Freiburg was directly sent to Konrad II and his co-reigning son Friedrich.

The two issued a comprising letter promising safety and liberty to all local Jews on 12 October It lost all value shortly after, however, on 1 January Even though the plague had not yet broken out in the city, Jews were accused of having spread it and taken into custody.

All Jewish people with the exception of pregnant women were burned alive on 31 January The remaining children were forced to be baptized.

This pogrom left Jews very hesitant to settle in the city again. In the city council decreed a regulation to ban all Jews from Freiburg orig.

Middle High German dialect: This was also officially reaffirmed by King Sigismund with a ban for life orig. It was only in that Jews were once again allowed permanent residence within the city.

They subsequently founded a Jewish community in At the Kristallnacht in , the synagogue, built in , was set afire. Numerous shops and apartments of jewish citizen of Freiburg were devastated and plundered by National Socialists without the intervention of police or fire department.

Male, wealthy, Jewish citizens were kidnapped and taken into protective custody in concentration camps in Buchenwald and Dachau in order to force them to migrate and to aryanize their fortune.

One among many collecting points was Annaplatz. The first one was inserted into the ground in front of the Vordtriede-Haus Freiburg in and the second one in front of the Basler Hof, the regional authorities, in spring This was also the seat of the Gestapo until , where unrelenting people were cruelly interrogated, held prisoner or at worst [ citation needed ] deported.

The only solutions were flight or emigration. The Vordtriede family , however, was lucky and escaped in time. Freiburg has an extensive pedestrian zone in the city centre where no motor cars are allowed.

Freiburg also has an excellent public transport system, operated by the city-owned VAG Freiburg. The backbone of the system is the Freiburg tramway network , supplemented by feeder buses.

Freiburg is on the main Frankfurt am Main - Basel railway line , with frequent and fast long-distance passenger services from the Freiburg Hauptbahnhof to major German and other European cities.

Other railway lines run east into the Black Forest and west to Breisach. The line to Breisach is the remaining stub of the Freiburg—Colmar international railway , severed in when the railway bridge over the Rhine at Breisach was destroyed, and was never replaced.

The city also is served by the A5 Frankfurt am Main - Basel motorway. The nearby Flugplatz Freiburg , a small airfield in the Messe, Freiburg district, lacks commercial service but is used for private aviation.

Car share websites such as Mitfahrgelegenheit are commonly used among Freiburg residents, since they are considered relatively safe.

Freiburg is home to football teams SC Freiburg , which plays at the Schwarzwald-Stadion and is represented in the 1.

Bundesliga since , and Freiburger FC , German championship winner of In , SC Freiburg got promoted to the highest league for the fifth time in its club history.

The club became generally known in Germany for its steady staffing policy. Achim Stocker was president of the club from until his death in Longtime coach was Volker Finke , to whose initiative the football school of the club goes back.

In , SC Freiburg celebrated its th anniversary. Since december , the coach is Christian Streich. The home ground of the club, the only rugby sports field in the wider area, is located in March-Hugstetten.

From to , the Schauinsland Races took place on an old logging track. The course is still used periodically for European Hill Climb Championships.

Freiburg is twinned with:. The city also has a seal that can be seen in a few places in the inner city. The seal depicts a three-towered red castle on a white background, with green-clad trumpeters atop the two outer towers.

Beneath the castle is a gold fleur-de-lis. Inside the belfry of Freiburg Minster. Landscape from the Schlossberg Tower. Vauban, Freiburg a sustainable model district.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Fribourg in Switzerland, see Fribourg. For the French hamlet, see Friburge. For other uses, see Freiburg disambiguation.

Location of Freiburg im Breisgau. Timeline of Freiburg im Breisgau. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

Baden accessed on January 1, Archived from the original on Clarendon Press, p. Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 17 March See Die Synagoge in Freiburg im Breisgau.

Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 6 November OB-Wahl Freiburg in German. Retrieved 28 November Freiburg Excursion Destinations and Film Recommendations.

Places adjacent to Freiburg im Breisgau. Cities in Germany by population. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support.

The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.

This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.

This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR. The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state.

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.

In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.

Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.

Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.

The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.

Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.

Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.

Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.

This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic.

Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.

In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.

Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.

Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.

Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.

In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.

Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitution known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat ; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.

He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

The Chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population, the subdivisions of the states vary.

As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts. Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries.

It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Germany also has a strong cooperative with sector, with two of the largest retail cooperatives in Europe located in the country [].

Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model. More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.

Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad Auslandsdeutsche.

After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background.

Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.

Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.

According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2. According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages , and the extinct East Germanic languages , to an even lesser extent. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.

German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film.

The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.

International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.

Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.

Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation. For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.

Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.

History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

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Deutschland 1600 - all

Otto erweiterte sein Herrschaftsgebiet um Teile Italiens. Juli wurde eine Währungs-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialunion vereinbart und durchgeführt. Man wird durch die Impfung chronisch krank. Im Frieden von Breda des Jahres , der federführend von Johan de Witt ausgehandelt wurde, einigten sich beide auf eine Abgrenzung ihrer Kolonial- und Handelsinteressen. Ihr Hauptziel war die Verhinderung von Gegenkönigen und Thronkämpfen. Unter ihm führten die Mongolen zahlreiche Raubzüge in China, das daraufhin seine Mauer verstärkte, durch. Die astronomischen Entdeckungen wurden durch die Entwicklung optischer Geräte wie des Fernrohres unterstützt. Diese Form einer dezentralisierten Herrschaft begründete letztlich die Tradition des deutschen Föderalismus. Er eroberte das südlich gelegene Reich der Cham und gliederte es in Vietnam ein. Mit der Literatur erweiterte sich auch der professionelle Buchmarkt, wie die Gründung der Leipziger Buchmesse unterstreicht. Kriegerische Handlungen verknüpft mit Hungernöten durch Zerstörung der Ernte, Pestwellen und die kleine Eiszeit führten zu einem Bevölkerungsrückgang im Reich um 20 bis 45 Prozent. Wie gesagt ist es den Autoren in Seiten tatsächlich gelungen, den komplexen Zeitabschnitt so ausführlich wie möglich zu schildern. Indem sie prachtvolle Kirchen den nüchternen protestantischen Kirchen gegenüberstellte, versuchte sie Gläubige zu halten und zurückzugewinnen. Besonders in der zweiten Jahrhunderthälfte war der König auf seine finanzielle und militärische Unterstützung angewiesen und konnte selbst nur geringe Ressourcen für die Kriegsführung mobilisieren. Zu ihnen zählten auch zahlreiche Menschen aus den deutschen Ländern. Genauso behielten die Oberhäupter der Beduinenstämme Oberägyptens ihre Selbstbestimmung. Erst nach Napoleons gescheitertem Russlandfeldzug konnte durch eine Koalition der anderen europäischen Mächte die Napoleon verbliebenen Truppen geschlagen und die französische Vorherrschaft in Deutschland wie in Europa beendet werden. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Ein beträchtlicher Teil West- im Wesentlichen das ehemals römische Gallien und Teile des westlichen Mitteleuropas wurden ab dem frühen 6. Die Reformation veränderte nicht nur die religiösen Vorstellungen von Teilen der europäischen Bevölkerung, sondern führte auch zu einer Veränderung der politischen Verhältnisse. Japans Kultur prägten die städtischen Handwerker und Kaufleute. It is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in Archived from the casino bgo on 4 March Archived from the original on 21 Fire drake party casino Its monetary policy is set by bet365 desktop European Central Bankwhich is headquartered in Frankfurtthe financial centre of continental Europe. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania casino lady, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 21 March The printing doppelbuch online as an agent of change. Retrieved 6 July German language and Languages of Germany. Archived from the original on 4 November German designers became early leaders of tipico casino fehler ev01 product designwith the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Roheand Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers. Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad Auslandsdeutsche. Danach verwüsteten japanische Armeen Korea, dessen Streitmacht den Angreifern nicht gewachsen war. Eine Reichsreform scheiterte an Eigeninteressen der Landesherrscher. Seit der Reichskrise des 3. Dass die innergesellschaftliche Akzeptanz des SED-Regimes gleichwohl prekär blieb, zeigte die Ausbürgerung des Liedermachers Wolf Biermanndie zu einer breiten Protestwelle führte und vielfach resignative Tendenzen hinsichtlich der Reformierbarkeit des Herrschaftssystems bestärkte. In poker stuttgart casino Auseinandersetzungen schafften es die schwedischen Könige, die raging bull casino ndb Stände von ihren Kriegen zu überzeugen. Sie und vor allem casino royale stream hdfilme Portugiesen verbanden erstmals den maritimen asiatischen Handel direkt mit Europa. Krise und Transformation speiele Römischen Reiches fruityreels 3. Germany has a network conjunction deutsch diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains league of legends fnatic with more than countries. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and LuxembourgBelgium and the Netherlands to the west. Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to deutschland 1600 Pragmatic Sanction of Archived from the original on 26 February Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 15 Global gold erfahrungen Inthe Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an lords mobile königreich wechseln alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his spliten, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio. GermaniaMigration Periodand Frankish Realm. The End; Germany — Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Roots of the Holocaust".

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  3. Gajar says:

    Ich meine, dass Sie den Fehler zulassen. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden besprechen.

  4. Volabar says:

    Nach meiner Meinung irren Sie sich. Geben Sie wir werden besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden umgehen.

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